African Instituted Churches

Chakanza, J.C., "An Annotated List of Independent Churches in Malawi 1900-1981", University of Malawi, Sources for the Study of Religion in Malawi No. 10, 1983, 71pp. A revised second edition of the 1980 edi tion which adds over thirty further churches to the 143 identi fied in the first edition. The annotation indicates the extent of the variety to be found within independency. MAL BL 2470 .M34 REL

Chakanza, J.C., "The Independency Alternative: An historical Survey", Religion in Malawi, Vol. 4 (1994), pp. 32-42. A study of religious independency in Malawi based on three "high" periods: 1900-1910, 1923-1935 and 1969-1978, each of which has its own distinctive char acteristics. Concludes with a proposal for a pastoral approach towards independent churches to be adopted by the mainline churches.

Chakanza, J.C., "Towards an Interpretation of Independent Churches in Malawi", Africa Theological Journal, Vol. 11/2 (1982), pp. 133-142. Examines several explanations of the rise of independency in Malawi, balancing the negative interpretation that concentrates on the failings of the mainstream churches with the positive one which stresses authentic ity and inculturation.

Chakanza, J.C. Voices of Preachers in Protest. The Ministry of Two Malawian Prophets: Elliot Kamwana and Wilfred Gudu, Blantyre 1998.

Chirwa, W.N.C. 'Masokwa Elliot Kenan Kamwana Chirwa: His Religious and Political History Paper No. 9, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, 1984.

MacDonald, R.J., Religious Independency as a Means of Social Advance in Northern Nyasaland in the 1930s," Journal of Religion in Africa, vol.3 (1970).

Moyo, Limbani K., Exploring the Impact of the Breakway Churches in the CCAP Synod of LIvingstonia, BTh, Livingstonia, 2010.

Mwalwanda, C.T., "The African National Church", Research Paper (University of Malawi, 1967).

Nyangu, Autin, A History of Zakumwaba Ministry and its Impact on the CCAP in Mzuzu, Zomba: Kachere Documents no 20,2006.

Parratt, John K., "African Independent Churches in Malawi", Journal of Social Science (Zomba), Vol. 10 (1983), pp. 111-119. An attempt to trace, both historically and theologically, the currents which lead from the mainstream churches to the formation of independent churches.

Parratt, John K., "Religious Independency in Nyasaland - a Typology of Origins", African Studies, Vol. 38/2 (1979), pp. 183-200. A compara tive study of the differing origins of independent religious movements, examining the work of Joseph Booth, the return of migrant labourers, reactions to racial discrimination and personality clashes.

Parratt, J.K. 'Y.Z. Mwasi and the Origin of the Blackman's Church', Journal of Religion in Africa, 9, 1978.

Phiri, D.D., Malawians to Remember, Charles Chidongo Chinula, Lilongwe, 1975.

Ross, K.R., "Constitution of the African National Church 1928", Christianity in Malawi: A Source Book, Kachere, 1995, pp. 161-168.

Shepperson, George, "The Politics of African Church Separatist Move ments in British Central Africa 1892-1916", Africa, Vol. 24/3 (1954), pp. 233-245.

Siska, Gleady Mavutu Thoms, "Blackman's Church of Africa Presbyterian it's Survival and Progress from July 1955 to date", BA Theology, University of Malawi, 26 pp.

Soko, Boston, Nchimi Chikanga The Battle against Witchcraft in Malawi, Kachere, 2002.

Yesaya Zerenji Mwasi: Essential and Paramount Reasons for Working Independently 1933, Christianity in Malawi: A Source Book, Kachere, 1995, pp. 169-178.

Secessions from Livingstonia Mission

Banda, G.A., "The Last Church of God and his Christ", final year Sociol ogy seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1979/80, 44pp. Shows the sociological significance of the Last Church and attempts to account for its relationships with other Christian Churches and with Govern ment. CC/TRS/1980/1

Campbell, S.J., "The Blackman's Theological College, Malawi: An Inde pendent Attempt at Contextualized Theological Education", Missiology, Vol. 10 (1982), pp. 107-111.

Dassu, John A., "The Causes of the Rise of the Independent African Churches within Livingstonia, 1930-1934", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1976-77, 21pp. Argues that the underlying cause of the secessions was haphazard policy formation in the Liv ingstonia Mission which accounts for the many quarrels and disputes which broke out in those years. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Domingo, Charles, Letters of Charles Domingo, Harry W. Langworthy (ed.), University of Malawi, Sources for the Study of Religion in Malawi No. 9, 1983. Collected letters of Charles Domingo, written mainly between 1910 and 1912 and addressed most often to Joseph Booth in Cape Town. A valuable source for the study of early ecclesi astical independency in Malawi. MAL Z 7757 .M3 BIB

Kalinga, Owen J.M., "Jordan Msumba, Ben Ngemela and the Last Church of God and His Christ", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 13/2 (1982), pp. 207-218. A leading historian of the Ngonde kingdom gives his assessment of the early years of the Last Church, a powerful break-away movement from the Livingstonia Mission.

Langworthy, Harry W., "Charles Domingo, Seventh-day Baptists and Independency", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 96-121.

Macdonald, Roderick J., "Religious Independency as a Means of Social Advancement in Northern Nyasaland in the 1930s", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 3/2 (1970), pp. 106-129. A study of the Tonga-led "breakaways" from the Livingstonia Mission with particular attention to the work of Yesaya Zerenji Mwasi.

Manda, J.D., "Independency in the Nkhatabay Area from about 1930 to Current Times", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1969-70, 11pp. Examines the contributions made by Elliot Kamwana, Yesaya Zerenji Mwasi and Jordan Msumba. Two distinct groups of churches are identified - those which were introduced from outside and those which broke away from churches in Malawi. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Mlenga, Denis K.C., "African Emmanuel's Church: a Secession from the African National Church in Northern Malawi", seminar paper on New Religious Movements, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1980/81, 11pp. Discusses the origins of the African Emmanuel's Church, its constitu tion and the church's organizational structure. CC/TRS/1981/2

Mwale, Joseph P.V., "The Last Church of God at Nkhunga", BA (Theology) dissertation, University of Malawi, 1995, 12pp. A sympa thetic account of the life, worship and distinctive features of the Last Church, based on field research conducted at Nkhunga in Nkhata Bay. CC/TRS/1995/6

Mwalwanda, C.T., "The African National Church", research paper, Uni versity of Malawi, 1967.

Mwasi, Yesaya Zerenji, My Essential and Paramount Reasons for Working Independently, ed. John K. Parratt, University of Malawi, Sources for the Study of Religion in Malawi No. 2, 1979. The statement issued by Mwasi when he broke away from Livingstonia and founded the Black man's Church which is in Tongaland, including a passionate plea for the indigenization of Christianity. MAL BR 1443 .M34 MWA 1933

Parratt, John K., "Y.Z. Mwasi and the Origins of the Blackman's Church", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 9 (1978), pp. 193-206. Drawing extensively on Mwasi's writings this article traces the roots and reasons for his secession from the Livingstonia Mission and examines the ratio nale behind the establishment of the Blackman's Church.

Phiri, B.M.N., "Independent African Churches in Nkhata Bay District", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, 1969/70, 10pp. Attempts to give background and details on the founding of AICs in Nkhata Bay, with particular attention to Elliot Kenan Kamwana and Yesaya Zerenji Mwase. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Phiri, D.D., Rev Charles Chidongo Chinula, London: Longman, 1975, 74pp. An account of the life of Chinula, including examination of his work as missionary, musician, politician and educationalist. MAL DT 3219 .C48 PHI

Sikanda, B.J.K., "The Last Church of God and his Christ in Karonga: an historical Analysis of its Development", History seminar paper, Chan cellor College, Zomba, 1975-76, 17pp. Explains the history of the Last Church in Karonga from its beginnings in 1925 and accounts for its sur vival in spite of mounting opposition and criticisms from various quar ters. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Watchtower/Jehovah's Witnesses

Cross, Sholto, "The Watch Tower Witch-Cleansing and Secret Societies in Central Africa." Conference on the Hisory of Central African Religious System (Lusaka, 1972).

Fields, Karen E., Revival and Rebellion in Colonial Central Africa, Prince ton: Princeton University Press, 1985. 323pp. An examination of the Watch tower movement in Zambia and Malawi. DT 352.7 FIE 1985 UOM-CCL

Hooker, J.R., "Witness and Watchtower in the Rhodesias and Nyasaland," Journal of African History, vol.6 (1965).

Mnkwakwata, R., "Elliott Kenani Kamwana Masokwa Chirwa, Founder of the Watchman Healing Mission", trans. J.X.T. Muwamba, account of the history of Elliot Kamwana, written by a prominent fol lower who later seceded and founded the Anduwila Church. KI