Bone, David S., "Islam in Malawi", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 13/2 (1982), pp. 126-138. Identifies four sources of Islam in Malawi and explains their relationship to the spread and distribution of the reli gion. It describes the characteristics of local Islamic practice and the leadership and organisation of the Islamic community and its relation ship to the wider Malawian society.

Bone, David, "Malawi's Muslims. Historical Perspectives", Kachere, 2000, pp. 64-68.

Langworthy, Harry W., "Swahili Influence in the Area between Lake Malawi and the Luangwa River", African Historical Studies, Vol. 4/3 (1971), pp. 575-602. An article which throws much light on the origins of Islam in Malawi.

Milazi, Ibrahim, "The burning of Mosques in the North: Is it the beginning or climax of political fanaticism or Christian fundamentalism in Malawi?", p. 42.

Mwafulirwa, Yaulungu A.H., "Islam in Karonga District", seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, n.d., 9pp. Discusses the origins, spread and present distribution of Islam in Karonga. CC/TRS/1990/22