Presbyterian

Bwalya, Kelly, the Life of the Rev Dr Wyson Moses Kauzobafa Jele: An Appraisal of his Legacy as a Leader in the CCAP Synod of Zambia, BTh, Livingstonia, 2010.

Chirwa, Filemon Kamunkhwara, Nthanu za Chitonga, Kachere, 2007.

Forster, Peter G., Cullen Young: Missionary and Anthropologist, Kachere, 2003.

Fotheringham, L.M., Adventures in Nyasaland - a Two Year Struggle with Arab Slave-dealer in Central Africa, London: Sampson Low, 1891. A first-hand account of the struggle of the Christian missions with Mlozi the slave trader and his allies.

Kalinga, Owen J.M., "The Karonga War: Commercial Rivalry and Politics of Survival", Journal of African History, Vol. 21/2, 1980, pp. 204-218. The article traces the causes of the conflict between the Swahili "sultan" Mlozi and the African Lakes Company. It evaluates the extent to which religion was a factor in the dispute.

Macmillan, Hugh W., "The Origins and Development of the African Lakes Company, 1878-1908"' PhD, University of Edinburgh, 1970. An analy sis of the attempt by lay supporters of the Livingstonia Mission to fulfil the "commerce" part of Livingstone's vision by establishing a trading Company. Notes the rapid changes in politics, commerce and society during the Company's first 30 years and argues that its original aim, of making it possible for the Malawian economy to be self-suffi cient through production and trade, was not achieved.

Mavutu, Gleady and Thoms Siska, "Blackman's Church of Africa Presbyterian. It's Survival and Progress from July 1955 to date", BA Theology, University of Malawi, 26 pp. ISBN 99908-81-40-3.

McCracken, John, Politics & Christianity in Malawi 1875-1940. The Impact of the Livingstonia Mission in the Northern Province, Kachere, 2000.

Mwanza, Cornelius Koms, Church Growth through African Understanding of Christianity in the CCAP Synod of Livingstonia: A Case Study of Nthalire CCAP Synod of Livingstonia, BTh, Livingstonia, 2010.

Mlenga, Mosees, "Chibwezi: The Contemporary Meaning in Northern Malawi", PhD Module, Mzuzu University, 2008, 20 pp.

Moir, Frederick L.M., "The Story of the Africa Lakes Corporation", in Leo Weinthal (ed.), The Story of the Cape to Cairo Railway and River Route, Vol. 1, London, n.d.

Moir, Jane F., A Lady's Letters from Central Africa, Blan tyre: Central Africana, 1991.

Ncozana, Silas S. The Spirit Dimension in African Christianity. A Pastoral Study among the Tumbuka People of Northern Malawi, Kachere, 2002.

Nyangu, Austin, "A History of Zakumba Ministry and its Impact on the CCAP in Mzuzu" BA Theology University of Malawi,19 pp, ISBN 99908-16-57-1

Phiri, Matthews R. Gomezgani, "A Study on the Pre-Marriage Counselling in the CCAP Synod of Livingstone Ekwendeni Presbytery, BTh, Mzuzu University, 2009.

Ross, Kenneth R., "Malawi's Peaceful Revolution 1992-94: the Role of the Church of Scotland", Records of the Scottish Church History Society, Vol. XXVII (1997), pp. 280-304. Outlines the role of the Church of Scotland in Malawi's transition from dictatorship to democracy and argues that church links which transcend national boundaries can, in the post-colonial post-Cold-War world, be of strategic political significance. CC/TRS/1997/16

Ross, K.R., "Letter of Yesaya Chibambo 1921", Christianity in Malawi: A Source Book, Kachere, 1995, pp. 155-160.

Ross, K.R., "Whre were the Prophets and Martyrs in Banda's Malawi? Four Presbyterian Ministers", Here Coems Your King!, Kachere, 1996, pp. 131-148.

Sinclair, Margaret, Salt and Light. The Letters of Jack and Mamie Martin in Malawi 1921-28, Kachere, 2002.

Singini, Honard, Factors that Led to Chruch Growth, BTh, Livingstonia, 2010.

Siska, Mavutu Gleady Mavutu Thoms, Blackman's Church of Africa Presbyterian. It's Survival and Progress from July 1955 to date, Zomba: Kachere Documents no 29, 2007.

Stewart, James, From Nyassa to Tanganyika: the Journal of James Stewart CE in Central Africa 1876-79, ed. T. Jack Thompson, Blantyre: Central Africana, 1989, 92pp. Stewart was an engineer who played an important role in the construction of the first Blantyre and Livingstonia Mission stations and in other projects such as the Stevenson Road in Karonga. His journal conveys the flavour of the early years of the Scottish mis sions. DT 3214 .S74 A3

Strohbehn, Ulf, "Pentecostalic Approaches and Manifestations in Early Malawian Church History. A Pneumatoligical Retrospective".

Tangri, Roger K., "Inter-war 'Native Associations' and the Formation of the Nyasaland African Congress", Transafrican Journal of History, Vol. 1 (1971), pp. 84-102. Notes the important role of Blantyre and Livingsto nia Missions in the background to the formation of the nation alist movement in Malawi.

Tangri, Roger K., "The Development of Modern African Politics and the Emergence of a Nationalist Movement in Colonial Malawi, 1871-1958", PhD, University of Edinburgh, 1970.

Tembo, Masiye, Touched by his Grace: A Ngoni Story of Tragedy and Triumph, Kachere, 2005.

Thompson, T.J., Ngoni, Xhosa and Scot. Religious and Cultural Interaction in Malawi , Kachere, 2007.

Thompson, T. Jack, "Xhosa Missionaries in Late Nineteenth Century Malawi: Strangers or Fellow Countrymen?", pp. 8-16.

Livingstonia Synod

Aurora, 1897-1902.

Boeder, Robert B., "Sir Alfred Sharpe and the Imposition of Colonial Rule on the Northern Region", Society of Malawi Journal, Vol. 32/1 (1979), pp. 23-30. Includes consideration of the role of Livingstonia Mission and Robert Laws in particular, in convincing the Ngoni to accept British rule. MAL DT 8596 .S5 BOE UOM CCL

Brandel-Syrier, M., Black Woman in Search of God, London: Lutterworth, 1962. Includes discussion of the Umanyano. DT 763.6 BRA UOM-CCL

Brock, Sheila M., "James Stewart and Lovedale: a Reappraisal of Missionary Attitudes and African Response in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, 1870-1905", PhD, University of Edinburgh, 1974. A study of Lovedale during the period when it was closely linked with Livingstonia.

Bwinga, S.W., "The North Nyasa Native Association", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1970/71, 9pp. An explanation of how the North Nyasa Native Association was formed in Livingstonia between 1910 and 1912 and how it mobilised people to achieve its aims by pressuring the colonial government to change its policies towards Africans. The author further adds that this Association laid the founda tions of the Nyasaland African Congress Party which led Nyasaland to independence in 1964. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Campbell, George H., Lonely Warrior, Blantyre, CLAIM, 1975, 62pp. A short biography of William Koyi, the Xhosa missionary from the Lovedale who came to Malawi as a member of the Livingstonia Mission in 1876 and worked with notable effect, particularly among the Ngoni, until his death at Njuyu in 1886. SML

Chapingasa, Violet, "Dr Robert Laws: Another Look at his Religious and Education Leadership", Chancellor College, Zomba (1979/80), pp. 1-37. A critical assessment of Laws' career, with particular attention to the procedures by which Africans were prepared for baptism, the indigenization of the Church and his approach to such African customs as polygamy, traditional dances and beer drinking. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Chavula, S.W.D., "The History of Loudon Mission, 1902-1973", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1973/74, 23pp. Traces the impact of Loudon (Embangweni) Mission in the expansion of educa tional, medical and evangelistic work in southern Mzimba. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Cook, D.J., "The Influence of Livingstonia Mission upon the Formation of Welfare Associations in Zambia, 1912-31", in T.O. Ranger and J. Weller (eds.), Themes in the Christian History of Central Africa, London: Heinemann, 1975. The Livingstonia Mission worked extensively in north-eastern Zambia and had a pronounced social and political impact. This article examines the establishment of the first welfare association at Mwenzo Mission. MAL DT 856 THE

Elmslie, W.A., Among the Wild Ngoni, Edinburgh: Oliphant and Ferrier, 1899; repr. London: Frank Cass, 1970. A vivid account by Elmslie, a medical missionary, of his work amongst the Ngoni people, including considerable material on their history and customs as well as their response to the Christian message. BV 3625 .N8 FLM 1970

Forster, Peter G., "Cullen Young, Yesaya Chiwambo and the Ngoni", Society of Malawi Journal, Vol.44/1 (1991), pp. 34-62. A discussion of the contrasting views of Cullen Young and Yesaya Chibambo on the contribution of the Ngoni to northern Malawian society.

Forster, Peter G., "Missionaries and Anthropology: the Case of the Scots of Northern Malawi", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 16 (1986), pp. 101-120. Examines the Scottish Missions and their contribution to the ethnography of the Ngoni, Tumbuka and Tonga of northern Malawi. It further discusses the general relationship between anthropologists and missionaries.

Forster, Peter G., T. Cullen Young: Missionary and Anthropologist, Hull: Hull University Press, 1989, 251pp. Of particular interest in this fine biography of a notable Livingstonia missionary is its account of Young's role in promoting engagement by the peoples of northern Malawi with their own history, culture and identity. Also notes Young's contribution to the development of Kamuzu Banda's philosophy of cultural nationalism. MAL GN 21 .Y68 FOR

Forster, Peter G.T. Cullen Young Missionary and Anthropologist, Zomba, Kachere Monograph 18.

Foster, P.G., 'Culture, Nationalism and the Invention of Tradition in Malawi', Journal of Modern African Studies, 32, 3, 1994.

Fraser, Agnes R., Donald Fraser of Livingstonia, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1934, 325pp. Another edition: The Man who Made Friends: Donald Fraser of Livingstonia, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1936, 287pp. A vivid account of the life and work of Donald Fraser, a greatly loved and highly influential missionary among the Ngoni in Mzimba from 1896 to 1922, written after his death by his widow. MAL BV 3625

Fraser, Donald, African Idylls: Portraits and Impressions of Life on a Central African Mission Station, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1923, 229pp. Depicts life at an African mission station, based on Fraser's experience at Embangweni. MAL DT862, ZTCL 276.897

Fraser, Donald, Livingstonia: The Story of our Mission, Edinburgh, For eign Mission Committee of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1915, 88pp. A brief history, including photographs and a list of those who served at Livingstonia from 1875 to 1914. MNA 1,211

Fraser, Donald, The Autobiography of an African, London: Seeley Service, 1925, 209pp. Originally written as an autobiography by Daniel Mtusu, a prominent early Ngoni convert of the Livingstonia Mission, it was edited for publication by Fraser after Mtusu's death. Indicates the attitudes and behaviour expected of a model convert who, but for his premature death, would have been among the first Africans ordained to the ministry in Livingstonia. MNA 1,210

Fraser, Donald, "The Church and Games in Africa," International Review of Missions, vol. 10 (1921).

Fraser, Donald, "The Evangelistic Approach to the African," International Review of Missions, vol. 15 (1926).

Fraser, Donald, The Future of Africa, London: Church Missionary Society, 1911, 309pp. Deals with pagan Africa and mission work among the pagan races of Central and South Africa. BV 3625 .N8

Fraser, Donald, "The Growth of the church in the Mission Field: VI The Livingstonia Mission, "International Review of Missions, vol.2 (1913).

Fraser, Donald, The New Africa, London: Edinburgh House Press, 1927, 202pp. Written at the end of Fraser's long period of service in Malawi, this book seeks to open up ethical perspectives on the social and religious issues of the day. Expresses sympathy with the aspirations of Malawians in church, education and politics. KI

Fraser, Donald, Winning a Primitive People, London: Seeley Service, 1914, 320pp. The work of the modern missionary in Africa especially among the Ngoni, Tumbuka and Senga. BV 3625 .N8 STU 1974

Glasgow, Manfred, Die Mkandawires auf Livingstonia, eine afrikanische Familie in Zeiten der Mission, des Kolonialismus und der Diktatur, Malawi 1875-1994, Bielefeld: transcript Verlag, 2006.

Gondwe, Esela, The Continuity and Change of the Umanyano Women's Guild of the Livingstonia Synod, Zomba: Kachere Documents no 20, 2007.

Gondwe, M.H.M., "The Interaction between Traditional Culture and Christianity in the Livingstonia Mission", research paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1987, 16pp. Considers Livingstonia's interaction with both the Ngoni and the Ngonde peoples. CC/TRS/1987/6

Gondwe, M.H.M., "The Livingstonia Mission, the Colonial Government and African Coffee Farming in Nchena-chena and Viphya North in Rumphi District during the Inter-war Period", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1988, 27pp. Examines the role of Livingstonia in the introduction of coffee farming in Nchena-chena and on the Viphya. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Inwood, Charles, An African Pentecost: the Record of a Missionary Tour in Central Africa, London, 1911. Inwood was a representative of the Keswick Convention who spoke at the "Embangweni Convention" of 1910 which was the occasion of spiritual crisis and Christian conversion for many Ngoni. His book includes an account of these events.

Inwood, Charles, An African Pentecost: the Record of a Missionary Tour in Central Africa (London, 1911).

Jack, J.W., Daybreak in Livingstonia, Edinburgh and London: Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1901, 371pp. Though the author never visited Nyasaland, he amassed much detailed information on the early years of the Livingstonia Mission and the accuracy of his work is acknowledged in the Introduction by Robert Laws. MNA 1,309

Jackson, Bill, "Breaking down the Wall: the Diary of a Participant in the Emergency of 1959", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, No. 10 (1994), pp. 46-51. A vivid account of the solidarity of white and black at Livingstonia at the time of the state of emergency in 1959 and their decision to respond to the British offer of evacuation by marking "Ephesians 2:14" on the ground where it could be viewed by British aircraft.

Jackson, Bill, Send us Friends, n.p., n.d. [1996], 396pp. Memoirs of an Irish Presbyterian missionary who worked in Malawi from 1958 to 1969, including first-hand accounts of decisive events of those years and vivid appreciations of leading figures in the Blantyre and Livingstonia Synods. KI

Jere, P.W.R., "The Transition to Colonial Rule amongst the Northern Ngoni: the Reign of Chimtunga Jere, 1896-1915", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba. 1988/89, 31pp. Includes analysis of the pacifying and diplomatic efforts of the Livingstonia missionaries in securing Ngoni acceptance of colonial rule. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Johnston, J., Dr Laws of Livingstonia, London: Partridge, n.d., 160pp. A record of Robert Laws' life and work, character and achievement as a missionary in northern Malawi. DA17 .L3

Kadalie, Clements, My Life and the ICU (London, 1970).

Khonje, R.K., "The Phoka of Rumphi and the Livingstonia Mission at Khondowe c.1890-1960: a Study in Unsuccessful Attempts to Develop a Cash Crop Industry", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1986, 21pp. Examines the attempts by the Phoka of Rumphi district to develop cash crop farming during the period c.1890-1960, with particular attention to the role played by Livingstonia Mission. CC/TRS/1986/1

Kumwenda, Jacob K., "Livingstonia Mission: Challenges for Change. Welfare and Development in the Northern Region of Malawi", M.Th., University of Edinburgh, 1995, 79pp. An historical survey of the role of Livingstonia Mission in education, health, crop production, forest and wildlife management and provision of infrastructure; and a call for greater solidarity, empowerment and participation with rural poor people in the north of Malawi. KI

Laws, Robert, "Native Education in Nyasaland", Journal of the African Society, Vol. 28 (1929).

Laws, Robert, Reminiscences of Livingstonia, Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1934, 272pp. A first-hand account of the religious and social transformation that occurred through the work of Livingstonia in the half-century during which Laws served in Malawi. Includes pho tographs and illustrations. BV 3625 .N8 LAW

Laws, Robert, Women's Work at Livingstonia (Paisley, 1886).

Livingstone, W.P., Laws of Livingstonia, London: Hodder and Stoughton, n.d. [1921]. A popular tribute to perhaps Malawi's most famous mis sionary. Provides a slightly romanticized account of the early years of Livingstonia's history. MNA 1,375

Long, Norman, "Bandawe Mission Station and Local Politics 1878-86. Human Problems in British Central Africa", The Rhodes Livingstone Journal, Vol. XXXII (1962), pp. 1-22. An examination of the role played by the Livingstonia Mission in Tonga politics, first by its initial policy of intervention and, secondly, by its later policy of neutrality.

Longwe, H.H., "An Evaluation of Missionary Activity on the Ngoni of Northern Malawi", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1970-71, 15pp. Attempts to evaluate the activities of the Livingstonia Mission in Northern Malawi, focusing on Njuyu and Loudon stations, during the period 1890-1925. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Lonje, A., "African Attitudes and Responses towards Western Education 1875-1940: The Case of the Livingstonia Mission in Northern Malawi", seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1979, 26pp. TRS DEPT. FILE NO. DT 857

Macpherson, Fergus, "Sumu za Chifipa: Christian Songs in Malawi", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, Vol. 6-7 (1990-91), pp. 36-53. A classification and analysis of some of the most beautiful hymns composed by early converts of the Livingstonia Mission.

Macpherson, Fergus, "The 1959 Emergency at Livingstonia", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, No. 10 (1994), pp. 36-45. Personal reminiscence of the decision of the Scottish missionaries to remain at Livingstonia when the British administration offered to evacu ate them at the declaration of the state of emergency in 1959.

Macpherson, Fergus, "The Ncerenje Memorial Stone", Nyasaland Journal, Vol.13/1 (1960), pp. 51-61. A discussion of a memorial stone laid at Ncerenje by representatives of the CCAP Presbytery of Livingstonia to commemorate the coming of the first missionaries from Scotland to the Ibanda area in 1883.

Mtambo, Katoto, “The Relationship between Livingstonia Synod and the Moravian Church and the Coming of the Moravian Church to Chitipa 1888-2005”. BA Theology, University of Malawi 2006, 17 pp, ISBN 99908-81-36-0.

Munthali, John Stuka Chidungwala, “The Role of the Livingstonia Synod of in the Promotion of Girls’ Secondary School Education”. BA Theology, University of Malawi 2006, 24 pp, ISBN 99908-81-37-9.

Mbunge, J.C.F., "Christianity and Education in Mtwaro's Chiefdom 1882-1930: a Study in Social Interaction", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1980-81. Discusses the traditional education upon which the Western type of education was imposed, Livingstonia's efforts to establish Christianity in the area and the emergence of Inde pendent Churches. CC/TRS/1981/16

McCracken, John, 'Church and State in Malawi the Role of the Scottish Presbyterian Missions, 1875-1965' in I. Phiri, K. Ross and J.L. Cox (eds), The Role of Christianity in Development and Reconstruction, Nairobi, 1996.

McCracken, John, "Livingstone and the Aftermath: the Origins and Devel opment of Livingstonia Mission", in Bridglal Pachai (ed.), Livingstone: Man of Africa, London: Longmans, 1973, pp. 218-234. MNA 1,472

McCracken, John, "Livingstonia as an Industrial Mission, 1875-1900", Religion in Africa, mimeo, Edinburgh, 1964. An analysis of the early years of Livingstonia, focussing on its impact at the commercial level, especially as a training centre for the labour needed in the industrial centres being developed in the south. MAL BL2400 REL

McCracken, John, "Livingstonia in the Development of Malawi: a Reassessment", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, No. 10 (1994), pp. 3-12. Recognises the limitations of Livingstonia, especially in its eurocentrism, but argues that the achievements of its "graduates" are testimony to the quality of the formation it offered.

McCracken, John, Politics and Christianity in Malawi 1875-1940: The Impact of the Livingstonia Mission in the Northern Province, Cam bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977, 324pp. The most authorita tive examination of the Livingstonia Mission and its impact in northern Malawi. Thoroughly researched and stylishly written, this is one of the seminal works on modern Malawian history and, in particular, on Livingstonia. BV 3625 .N8

McCracken, John, "Religion and Politics in Northern Ngoniland 1848-1904", in Bridglal Pachai (ed.), The Early History of Malawi, London: Longman, 1972, pp. 215-236. Argues that missionary education created a professional and political elite among the northern Ngoni and facili tated their integration into the wider society. MAL DT 3213 EAR

McCracken, John, "The University of Livingstonia", Society of Malawi Journal, Vol.27/2 (1974) pp. 14-23. Traces the history of the idea of starting a University at Livingstonia, the efforts that were made and the reasons for their failure.

McCracken, John, "Underdevelopment in Malawi: the Missionary Contri bution", African Affairs, Vol. 76 (1977), pp. 195-209. The author explores the paradox that the success of the Livingstonia Mission in training artisans and teachers led to underdevelopment in the northern region of Malawi as Mission "graduates" emigrated in large numbers in search of employment.

McIntosh, Hamish, "Contracts of Employment and the Influence of Class in the First Thirty Years of the Livingstonia Mission", Scottish Church History Society Records, Vol. 23/1 (1987), pp. 95-111. A study of the contrasting conditions of service of, on the one hand, "gentlemen" min isters and doctors and, on the other, the "artisans".

McIntosh, Hamish, "Robert Laws as Preacher", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, NS Vol. 3-4 (1985-87), pp. 43-54. A brief survey of the main themes of Robert Laws' preaching, including consideration of 28 sermons delivered at Bandawe in 1883.

McIntosh, Hamish, "The Effect of the War of 1914-18 on the Livingstonia Mission", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, NS Vol. 4-5 (1988-89), pp. 1-15. Argues that Livingstonia suffered from its involvement in the Great War through the closing of schools, the delay in constituting an African church, the suffering endured by the tenga-tenga and the bad impression caused by the missionaries going to war. The only "small plus" was the increased responsibility given to Africans by force of necessity.

McIntosh, Hamish, Robert Laws: Servant of Africa, Carberry: Handsel Press and Blantyre: Central Africana, 1993, 291pp. A carefully researched and sympathetic biography of Robert Laws, attempting to describe his character, his motivation, his vision and his achievements; and to assess their significance.

Mkandawire, Orison Ian, Chiswakhata Mkandawire of Livingstonia, Kachere, 2002.

Mkandawire, Orison Ian Boma, Face to Face with my Life, Zomba, Kachere Text no. 18.

Mlenga, Joyce D, "Women in Holy Ministry in the CCAP Synod of Livingstonia: A Study of Perceptions" PhD Module 1 Mzuzu Universita 2008, 18 pp, ISBN 978-99908-87-66-2

Morrison, J.H., Streams in the Desert: A Picture of Life in Livingstonia, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1919, 174pp. Impressions of Liv ingstonia Mission and life in northern Malawi, written during a visit to the area. MNA 1,427

Moyo, Fulata L., "Church and Politics: the Case of Livingstonia Synod", in Matembo S. Nzunda and Kenneth R. Ross (eds.), Church, Law and Political Transition in Malawi 1992-94, Gweru: Mambo, 1995, pp. 121-133, Kachere Book No. 1. An historical survey of the political wit ness of Livingstonia Synod which notes its tendency to adopt a Con stantinian approach to matters of church and state and to fail to exercise a prophetic ministry. KI

Moyo, Fulata L., "Church, Society and Government: a Survey and Evalu ation of the Prophetic Ministry of Livingstonia Synod of the CCAP 1964-1992", MA, University of Zimbabwe, 1993.

Msiska, Augustine W.C., "An Account of Phoka History up to the Coming of the Livingstonia Mission", History seminar paper, Chancellor Col lege, Zomba, 1969/70, 45pp. Includes some account of the influence of the establishment of Livingstonia Mission at Khondowe in 1884, partic ularly its impact on the Phoka people. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Msiska, Mpalive-Hangson, "Notes on Identity Formation at a Mission School", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, No. 10 (1994), pp. 13-23. A post-colonialist perspective on Livingstonia edu cation which suggests that it was both a poison and a medicine: an authoritarian place that also engendered a critical attitude towards authority and an agent of cultural alienation that facilitated ethnic and national identity.

Msiska, T.C.N., "Livingstonia Mission 1874-1927", research paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1995, 13pp. Traces the history of Liv ingstonia Mission from its origin in 1874 and examines the important part the mission played in the expansion of Christianity, education, medical work and industrial training in the surrounding areas.

Mtambo, Katoto, The Relationship between Livingstonia Synod and the Moravian Church and the Coming of the Moravian Church to Chitipa 1888-2005, Zomba: Kachere Documents no. 25,2007.

Mughogho, C., "Development of Livingstonia Mission to 1900", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1970-71, 13pp. Discusses the development of the Mission from the early days at Cape Maclear to the time it moved to Khondowe (1894) and its work in various stations like Bandawe, Hora, Loudon, Kasungu, Karonga. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Munthali, John Stuka Chidungwala, The Role of the Livingstonia Synod of in the Promotion of Girls' Secondary School Education, Zomba Kachere Documents no. 26, 2006.

Ncozana, Silas S., "Livingstonia Mission Attitude to Spirit Possession", Religion in Malawi, Vol. 3 (1991), pp. 43-51. An historical survey of the approach to spirit possession taken by the CCAP Synod of Livingstonia and a call for the whole process of possession healing to be brought into the church and christianized.

Ngosi, M.T.C., "Trade, Politics and Religion in the Colonization of Karonga", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1972 /73, 15pp. Attempts to explain how the Ngonde people became predisposed to the Europeans when their political survival was in doubt because of the intrusion of the Arab slave trader Mlozi and how the African Lakes Company and associated Scottish missionaries became agents of colonialism. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Nkunika, Gift W.H., "Hymns of the Early Christian Converts of the Livingstonia Synod of the Church of Central Africa Presbyterian", BEd disserta tion, University of Malawi, 1996, 23pp. A discussion of the role of indige nous hymnody in evangelization and inculturation among the Ngoni. Includes biographical information on some of the leading com posers. CC/TRS/1996/23

Nowa, R.H., "The Missionary and Local Culture in Evangelization Using Livingstonia as a Case Study: Period 1881-1910", research paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, n.d. [1987], 10pp. Attempts to present the attitude of the Livingstonia missionaries at Bandawe towards local cul ture and evangelization from 1881 to 1910. CC/TRS/1987/11

Nyasulu, A.C.H., "A Brief Assessment of the Medical Work by the Liv ingstonia Missionaries from 1875-1910", History seminar paper, Chan cellor College, Zomba, 1971/72, 13pp. The role of the Livingstonia missionaries in medical activities helped the Mission obtain its other objectives like evangelization and education. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Nyirenda, Paterson K., "Church Discipline in the CCAP Synod of Liv ingstonia: An Historical Review", BA (Theology) dissertation, Uni versity of Malawi, 1997, 25pp. A sympathetic consideration of the ori gins and history of the practice of church discipline in Livingstonia Synod which examines both indigenous traditions and Calvinist ecclesi ology before offering some critical analysis and recommendations. CC/TRS/1997/7

Nyirenda, Silas M., "The History of the Church of Central Africa Presby terian in Zambia", DD, American Bible Institute, Kansas City, 1984.

Quinn, Anne-Lise, "Holding on to Mission Christianity: Case Studies from a Presbyterian Church in Malawi", Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. XXV/4 (1995), pp. 387-411. A case study of how Christian belief and practice has become integrated into society and culture in a community in Mzimba. CC/TRS/1995/15

Quinn, Anne-Lise, "Working on the Protestant Ethic: Life in a Presbyte rian Community in Malawi", PhD, University of Cambridge, 1993.

Ross, K.R., "Livingstonia Mission: The Ngoni Response", Christianity in Malawi: A Source Book, Kachere, 1995, pp. 23-34.

Ross, K.R., "The Preaching of Mainstream Christian Churches in Malawi: A Survey and Analysis", in Gospel Ferment in Malawi: Theological Essays, Gweru, 1995.

Scott, A.C., Livingstonia Mission, Lake Nyasa, Eastern Central Africa, 1986, Scott's diary about his missionary work in Central Africa, Liv ingstonia Mission. CC/TRS/K. Library

Stewart, James, Livingstonia: Its Origin, Edinburgh: Andrew Elliot, 1894, 138pp. A largely autobiographical account in which the author, James Stewart of Lovedale, is at pains to record his own key role in the estab lishment of the Livingstonia Mission from its inception until he returned to Lovedale in 1877.

Stone, W. Vernon, "The Livingstonia Mission and the Bemba", Bulletin for the Society of African Church History, Vol. II/4 (1968), pp. 311-322. Compares the work of Livingstonia Mission among the Bemba of Zambia with the work in Malawi and discusses reasons for its failure to fulfil its initial promise, including sparsity of population and lack of resources.

Munthali, John Stuka Chidungwala, "The Role of the Livingstonia Synod of in the Promotion of Girls' Secondary School Education". BA Theology, University of Malawi 2006, 24 pp, ISBN 99908-81-37-9

Taylor, Helen M., Tunes from Nyasaland, Nyasaland: Livingstonia Mis sion, 1959. A collection of Ngoni hymns by early Livingstonia Chris tians, such as Mawalera Tembo, Peter Thole and Charles Chinula, translated into English.

Tembo, Masiye, Touched by His Grace: A Ngoni Story of Tragedy and Triumph, Zomba, Kachere Text no 20.

The Free Church of Scotland Monthly Record (continued as The Missionary Record of the United Free Church of Scotland etc.) 1874-1928.

The Livingstonia News, 1903-12.

Thompson, T. Jack, "African Leadership in the Livingstonia Mission 1875-1900", Malawi Journal of Social Science, Vol. 2 (1973), pp. 76-91. Shows how within its first twenty-five years the Livingstonia Mission was responsible for training capable leadership to serve in such areas as education, catechesis, agriculture, health and ministry.

Thompson, T. Jack, "An Independent Church which Never Was: the Case of Jonathan Chirwa", in A.F. Walls and W.R. Shenk (eds.), Exploring New Religious Movements: Essays in Honour of Harold W. Turner, Elkhart: Mission Focus Publications, 1990, pp. 107-118.

Thompson, T. Jack, Christianity in Northern Malawi: Donald Fraser's Missionary Methods and Ngoni Culture, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995. Argues that Donald Fraser succeeded in commending the Christian faith to the Ngoni of Mzimba because he presented it in such a way as to reso nate with traditions and values of Ngoni culture.

Thompson, T.J., "Early Missionary Attitudes towards African Leadership in the Livingstonia Mission, 1875-1900," History Seminar Paper (University of Malawi).

Thompson, T. Jack, Livingstonia 1875-1975, Blantyre: CLAIM, 1975, 16pp. A short history, with photographs, of the Livingstonia Mission on its centenary. Provides a profile of the Mission and a list of prominent leaders. MNA

Thompson, T.J. (ed.), From Nyassa to Tanganyika: the Journal of James Stewart C.E. in Central Africa, 1876-79, 1989.

Thompson, T. Jack, "Livingstonia 1875-1975 - A Century of African Involvement", History seminar paper, Chancellor College, Zomba, 1976, 21pp. Explains the degree to which local Christians played a role in the early days of Livingstonia, their responsibility as the mission devel oped in the 20th century and steps followed in order to assume control of the church in the years after the Second World War. MAL DT 3201 CHA

Thompson, T.J. (ed.), 'Livingstonia, Malawi: a Cententary Appraisal', special issue of the Bulletin of the Scotish Institute of Missionary Studies, 10, 1994 [articles by McCracken, Msiska, Thompson, MacPherson, Jackson, Bone, Fraser]

Thompson, Jack, Ngoni, Xhosa and Scot: Religious and Cultural Interaction in Malawi, Zomba, Kachere Book no 22.

Thompson, T. Jack, "Speaking for Ourselves: the African Writers of Liv ingstonia", Bulletin of the Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, No. 10 (1994), pp. 24-35. A survey of writers trained at Livingstonia such as Clements Kadalie, Charles Domingo, Yesaya Chibambo, Samuel Hara and Yesaya Zerenji Mwasi. Notes their burning desire to put the African side of the case.

Thompson, T. Jack, "The Legacy of Donald Fraser", International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Vol. 18/1 (1994), pp. 32-35.

Thompson, T. Jack, "True Love and Roots: a Centenary Re-assessment of the Work of William Koyi among the Ngoni", Society of Malawi Journal, Vol. 39/2 (1986), pp. 15-25. A discussion of the key role played by the Xhosa "evangelist" William Koyi in the early days of the relation ship between Livingstonia Mission and the Ngoni.

Velsen, Jan van, "The Missionary Factor among the Lakeside Tonga of Nyasaland", Rhodes-Livingstone Journal, Vol. 26 (1959), pp. 1-22. A discussion of the role of Livingstonia missionaries in Tonga-Ngoni politics and diplomacy from the 1870s. Considers their role in Tonga soci ety in respect of such matters as bringing material benefits and increas ing the political status of chiefs. Notes the strength of Tonga adherence to Christianity.

Wright, Marcia, German Missions in Tanganyika 1891-1941: Lutherans and Moravians in the Southern Highlands, Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. Chapter VII "War and the Scottish Interlude" (pp. 137-158) contains useful information on Malawian missionaries who worked in Tanzania from 1917, esp. Yoram Mphande and George Nyasulu and on Scottish missionaries seconded to Tanzania from Livingstonia and Blantyre.

Young, T. Cullen (ed.) "The 'Native' Newspapers," Africa, vol. 11 (1938).

Young, T. Cullen (ed.) "The Religion of my Fathers", International Review of Missions, vol. 19 (1930).

Young, T. Cullen (ed.), "How Far can African Ceremonial be Incorporated in the Christian System?", Africa, vol. 8 (1935).

Young, T. Cullen. "The 'Henga' People in Northern Nyasaland," Nyasaland Journal, vol. 5 (1952).